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Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant tumors. Oncological diseases relate to the uncontrolled proliferation of mutated cells within the body. As opposed to a benign tumor, a malignant tumor (otherwise known as a cancerous tumor) has a high level of mutagenicity and generates metastases that penetrate into vital organs, changing their structure and functions. Additionally, during tumor development, there is a corresponding increase in blood toxin levels.

Which Organs are Vulnerable to Oncological Diseases, and What Causes Cancer?

Oncological diseases are systemic, and can therefore affect all the organs and systems of the body. Risk factors include genetic inheritance, gender, and age. This means that the skin, lungs, and digestive system is most at risk in young men, while older men’s prostates are more at risk. By contrast, young women are more likely to develop cervical, skin, digestive system, or lung tumors, while older women are most at risk from mammary gland diseases. Leukemia and lymphoma usually are detected in children.
It is worth mentioning that lung diseases have the highest lethality rate among all the oncological diseases regardless of gender and age.

The Most Frequent Malignant Tumors in Men are:

  • Trachea, Bronchi, Lung Tumors (usually at a young and middle age)
  • Prostate Gland (the most common location in men of middle and old age)
  • Skin
  • Stomach
  • Large Intestine

The Most Common Locations for Oncological Disease to Occur in Women are:

  • Skin Tumors
  • Breast Cancer
  • Uterine Body
  • Large Intestine
  • Stomach
  • Uterine Cervix
  • Rectum, Rectosigmoid Junction, Anus
  • Ovary
  • Lymphoid and Hematopoietic tissue
  • Trachea, Bronchi, Lung

Types of Cancer Treatment

Patients often perceive an oncological diagnosis as an incurable disease, but this is not true. Thanks to modern advances in early diagnosis and the latest treatment modalities, most tumors, including malignant ones, are successfully treated. Successful treatment depends on the timely detection of the disease.
Treatment methods depend on the type, stage, and course of the disease, location, tumor volume, metastases, patient’s condition, and many other factors.

The Advantages of Cancer Treatment in Turkey

Turkish clinics operate at world standards, using the best practices in Europe and the USA and their own innovations. Türkiye is among the most sought-after countries for oncological treatments. The advantages of being treated in Turkey are:

  • Early and Non-Invasive Cancer Diagnosis: Turkey offers cutting-edge medical technology and innovative research, enabling the possibility of early and non-invasive cancer diagnosis.
  • Ultra-Modern Equipment: Benefit from state-of-the-art medical equipment and facilities in Turkey, ensuring accurate and advanced diagnostic capabilities.
  • Leading Scientific Research and Medical Infrastructure: Turkey boasts a well-developed scientific research infrastructure, contributing to significant advancements in cancer diagnosis and treatment.
  • Latest Innovations in Laboratory Research: Experience the utilization of the latest laboratory research techniques and breakthroughs, enhancing precision and efficiency in cancer detection.
  • Highly Qualified Doctors with International Training: Trust in the expertise of Turkish physicians who have undergone extensive training in European countries and the USA, ensuring world-class medical care.
  • Perfect Balance between Quality and Price: Receive top-notch medical services at competitive prices, providing excellent value for patients seeking cancer diagnosis.
  • 50 JCI Accredited Health Institutions: Choose from a wide range of accredited health institutions, guaranteeing adherence to global standards of quality and safety.
  • High Level of Care and Courtesy: Turkish health personnel are known for their compassionate care and courtesy, providing a supportive environment for all patients throughout their cancer diagnosis journey.
What Is Chemotherapy?

Chemotherapy is a systemic cancer treatment that uses drugs to destroy or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. It is administered orally, intravenously, or through other routes to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy can be used as a primary treatment or in combination with other treatments such as surgery or radiation therapy.

What Types of Cancer Are Treated With Chemotherapy?

Chemotherapy can be used to treat various types of cancer, including but not limited to breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, ovarian cancer, and prostate cancer. The specific type of cancer and its stage help determine if chemotherapy is an appropriate treatment option.

What Are The Potential Side Effects Of Chemotherapy?

Chemotherapy can cause side effects as it affects both cancer cells and normal cells. Common side effects may include fatigue, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, constipation, weakened immune system, increased susceptibility to infections, anemia, and changes in fertility or menstrual cycle. However, it’s important to note that not all individuals experience the same side effects, and advancements in supportive care have helped in managing and minimizing these effects.

Is Chemotherapy The Only Treatment Option For Cancer?

No, chemotherapy is one of several treatment options available for cancer. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the type and stage of cancer, the individual’s overall health, and their treatment preferences. Other treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of treatments, may also be used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy.

Does Chemotherapy Guarantee A Cure For Cancer?

The effectiveness of chemotherapy in curing cancer varies depending on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, individual response to treatment, and other patient-specific characteristics. Chemotherapy can lead to remission or complete eradication of cancer cells in some cases, while in others, it may help control the disease, alleviate symptoms, or extend life expectancy. The treatment outcomes are best discussed with your oncologist, who can provide personalized information based on your specific diagnosis and treatment plan.

What Is Radiotherapy?

Radiotherapy, also known as radiation therapy, is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells or stop their growth. It works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, making it difficult for them to divide and grow. Radiotherapy can be delivered externally (external beam radiation) or internally (brachytherapy) depending on the type and location of the cancer.

What Types of Cancer Are Treated With Radiotherapy?

Radiotherapy can be used to treat various types of cancer. It is commonly employed in the treatment of solid tumors such as breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, head and neck cancers, and brain tumors. It can also be used to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life in advanced or metastatic cancers.

Is Radiotherapy Used Alone or In Combination With Other Treatments?

Radiotherapy can be used as a standalone treatment or in combination with other cancer treatments such as surgery and chemotherapy. The decision depends on factors such as the type and stage of cancer, location and size of the tumor, and individual patient characteristics. The treatment plan is determined based on a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, radiation oncologists, and other specialists.

How Long Does A Radiotherapy Treatment Course Typically Last?

The duration of radiotherapy treatment varies depending on the type and stage of cancer, the treatment intent (curative or palliative), and the radiation technique used. Some patients receive a few treatments over a week or two, while others may require daily treatments for several weeks. Your radiation oncologist will discuss the treatment schedule and duration specific to your condition.

How Effective Is Radiotherapy in Treating Cancer?

The effectiveness of radiotherapy depends on several factors, including the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as individual patient characteristics. Radiotherapy can be curative, aiming to eliminate the cancer completely, or it can be palliative, focusing on relieving symptoms and improving quality of life. The treatment outcomes are best discussed with your radiation oncologist, who can provide personalized information based on your specific diagnosis and treatment plan.

What Is Surgical Treatment?

Surgical treatment refers to medical procedures that involve the use of instruments or techniques to physically intervene or modify the body for therapeutic purposes. It is a branch of medicine that focuses on the operative management of diseases, conditions, or injuries.

Surgical treatment may be recommended for various reasons. It can be utilized to remove tumors, repair or replace damaged organs or tissues, improve functionality, alleviate symptoms, correct anatomical abnormalities, or restore normal bodily functions. The decision to undergo surgery depends on factors such as the nature of the condition, its severity, and the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

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